Wer war Charles Darwin?
Charles Robert Darwin was a British naturalist and biologist known for his theory of evolution and his understanding of the process of natural selection. In 1831 he undertook a five-year circumnavigation with the HMSBeagle, during which his studies of various plants led him to formulate his theories. In 1859 he published his history bookAbout the origin of species.
Darwin was born on February 12, 1809 in the small market town of Shrewsbury, England. A wealthy and privileged son who loved exploring the great outdoors, Darwin was the second youngest of six children.
Darwin came from a long line of scientists: his father, Dr. R.W. Darwin was a physician and his grandfather, Dr. Erasmus Darwin, was a well-known botanist. Darwin's mother, Susanna, died when he was only eight years old.
His father expected him to follow in his footsteps and become a doctor, but the sight of blood made Darwin dizzy. His father suggested becoming a minister, but Darwin was much more inclined to study natural history.
While Darwin was at Christ's College, botany professor John Stevens Henslow became his mentor. After Darwin graduated from Christ's College with a Bachelor of Arts in 1831, Henslow recommended him for a post as a naturalist aboard HMS.Beagle.
Commanded by Captain Robert FitzRoy, the ship was to embark on a five-year research voyage around the world. The trip would be the opportunity of a lifetime for the budding young naturalist.
HMS 27 December 1831BeagleWith Darwin on board, he embarked on his voyage around the world. Throughout the voyage, Darwin collected a wide variety of natural specimens, including birds, plants, and fossils.
Darwin on the Galapagos
Through research and hands-on experimentation, he had a unique opportunity to look closely at the principles of botany, geology, and zoology. The Pacific Islands and the Galapagos Archipelago were of particular interest to Darwin, as was South America.
On his return to England in 1836, Darwin began writing down his discoveries in the United Statesresearch journal, published as part of Captain FitzRoy's larger narrative and later edited intoZoology of the Beagle Voyage.
The voyage had a monumental effect on Darwin's view of natural history. He began to develop a revolutionary theory of the origin of living things that went against the accepted views of other naturalists of the time.
Darwin's theory of evolution asserted that species survived through a process called "natural selection," in which those that had successfully adapted or evolved to meet the changing demands of their natural habitat thrived and reproduced, while species that did not evolve and reproduce , died.
Through his observations and studies of birds, plants, and fossils, Darwin found similarities between species around the world, along with variations based on specific locations, leading him to believe that the species we know today were gradually evolving from common ones ancestors developed.
Darwin's theory of evolution and the process of natural selection later became known simply as "Darwinism".
At the time, other naturalists believed that all species arose at the beginning of the world or arose throughout natural history. In both cases, they believed the species stayed the same over time.
'Origin of Species'
In 1858, after years of scientific research, Darwin publicly presented his revolutionary theory of evolution in a letter delivered to a meeting of thelinear society. On November 24, 1859, he published a detailed explanation of his theory in his best-known work,On the origin of species through natural selection.
Over the next century, DNA studies provided scientific evidence for Darwin's theory of evolution. However, the controversy surrounding their conflict with creationism, the religious view that all nature was born of God, is still present among some people today.
social darwinismIt is a collection of ideas that emerged in the late 19th century and adopted Darwin's theory of evolution to explain social and economic problems.
Darwin himself rarely commented on any connection between his theories and human society. But in trying to explain his ideas to the public, Darwin borrowed popular concepts like "survival of the fittest" from sociologist Herbert Spencer.
Over time, like thatIndustrial RevolutionmiI let it beCapitalism swept the world, social Darwinism was used as a justification for imperialism, labor abuse, poverty, racism,Eugenieand social inequality.
After a lifetime of dedicated research, Charles Darwin died on April 19, 1882 at his family home, Down House, London. He is buried thereWestminster Abbey.
More than a century latermourningOrnithologist Richard Brum attempted to revive Darwin's lesser-known theory of sexual selectionThe evolution of beauty..
While Darwin's original attempts to cite aesthetic mating decisions by females as a driving force for evolution have been criticized, Brum made a powerful argument through his experience with birds and won the selection forThe New York Times newspaper' List of the 10 best books of 2017.
- Name: Charles Darwin
- Year of birth: 1809
- Date of Birth: February 12, 1809
- Geburtsstadt: Shrewsbury
- Country of birth: England
- Male gender
- Best Known For: Charles Darwin was a British naturalist who developed a theory of evolution based on natural selection. His views and "social Darwinism" remain controversial.
- The industry
- science and medicine
- University of Edinburgh
- interesting data
- Although Charles Darwin originally went to college to be a doctor, he changed careers when he found he couldn't stand the sight of blood.
- Charles Darwin named a mountain, Mount Darwin, in Tierra del Fuego after his 25th birthday. The monumental gift was delivered by Captain FitzRoy.
- Year of death: 1882
- Todesdatum: 19. April 1882
- Todesstadt: Downe
- Todesland: England
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- Article Title: Biography of Charles Darwin
- Autor: Biography.com Publishers
- Website Name: The Biography.com website
- URL: https://www.biography.com/scientists/charles-darwin
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- Publisher: A&E; TV chains
- Last updated: March 29, 2021
- Initial Release Date: April 3, 2014
- A man who dares to waste an hour of his time has not discovered the value of life.
- [How great is the] difference between wild man and civilized man - it is greater than between a wild beast and [a] tame one.
- If all humans were dead, apes would make humans. Men make angels.
- I'm an absolute millionaire in weird and quaint little facts.
- Multiply, vary, let the strongest live and the weakest die.
- Because the shield can be just as important for victory as the sword or the spear.
- I see no good reason why the opinions expressed in this volume should shake anyone's religious feelings." [On 'The Origin of Species']
- A grain in the scales can determine which individuals will live and which will die, which varieties or species will increase in number, and which will decline or eventually become extinct.
- If it could be shown that a complex organ existed that could not have been formed by numerous successive small modifications, my theory would collapse completely. But I can't find any such case.
- The extinction of species and groups of species, which has played such a remarkable role in the history of the organic world, follows almost inevitably from the principle of natural selection.
- There is greatness in this vision of life... from such a simple beginning infinitely more beautiful and wondrous forms have been and continue to be evolved.
The love for all living creatures is the most noble attribute of man. It is not the strongest of the species that survives, not the most intelligent that survives. It is the one that is the most adaptable to change.What book of answer did Darwin read in 1838 and realize the importance of natural selection in evolution? ›
In 1838, Darwin read Malthus' essay and came to realize that all plant and animal populations have this same potential to rapidly increase their numbers unless they are constantly kept in check by predators, diseases, and limitations in food, water, and other resources that are essential for survival.What was Darwin's famous quote? ›
1. "A man who dares to waste one hour of time has not discovered the value of life." 2. "Great is the power of steady misrepresentation; but the history of science shows that fortunately, this power does not long endure."What are the 5 main points of Darwin's theory? ›
In fact, it is so simple that it can be broken down into five basic steps, abbreviated here as VISTA: Variation, Inheritance, Selection, Time and Adaptation.What are some quotes about the theory of evolution? ›
“The theory of evolution is quite rightly called the greatest unifying theory in biology.” “Evolution is amazingly versatile in adapting the materials at hand to other uses.” “Believing as I do in evolution, I merely believe that it is the method by which God created, and is still creating, life on earth.”What did Darwin's book explain? ›
Darwin's book introduced the scientific theory that populations evolve over the course of generations through a process of natural selection. The book presented a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution.What are 2 important points of Darwin's book on the origin of species? ›
Darwin's thesis included two key points: Various groups of creatures develop from one or a few common ancestors. Natural selection is the process by which this evolution occurs.What was the major idea that Darwin presented in his book The Origin of species Responses? ›
Darwin proposed that species can change over time, that new species come from pre-existing species, and that all species share a common ancestor. In this model, each species has its own unique set of heritable (genetic) differences from the common ancestor, which have accumulated gradually over very long time periods.Why was Darwin's book so important? ›
This book is viewed by many as the work that laid much of the groundwork for evolutionary biology. In it, Darwin introduced a number of fascinating ideas and observations about how species evolve. The vast majority of these were based on his time exploring the Galapagos Islands.What was Darwin's biggest question he was trying to answer? ›
NARRATOR: Darwin's theory of evolution, his account of why species adapt and change, has been called the best idea anyone ever had. But even Darwin admitted that his work was incomplete. Vast questions were still unanswered. And the biggest question was, "How?" How did evolution take place?
Darwin occupies an exalted place in the history of Western thought, deservedly receiving credit for the theory of evolution. In The Origin of Species, published in 1859 (1), he laid out the evidence demonstrating the evolution of organisms.What was Charles Darwin's most famous theory? ›
Charles Darwin used the concept of a tree of life in the context of the theory of evolution to illustrate that all species on Earth are related and evolved from a common ancestor.What are Darwin's 3 rules? ›
Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection rests on three observations. The first is that members of a species vary. The second is that offspring inherit characteristics from their parents. And the third is that species are adapted to their natural environments.What were Darwin's 3 main ideas? ›
The essence of Darwin's theory is that natural selection will occur if three conditions are met. These conditions, highlighted in bold above, are a struggle for existence, variation and inheritance.What are the 4 principles of Darwin's theory? ›
There are four principles at work in evolution—variation, inheritance, selection and time. These are considered the components of the evolutionary mechanism of natural selection.What is a famous quote about theory? ›
- “It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data. ...
- “Man is so intelligent that he feels impelled to invent theories to account for what happens in the world. ...
- “Just because an apple falls one hundred times out of a hundred does not mean it will fall on the hundred and first.”
“Experience without theory is blind, but theory without experience is mere intellectual play.” “How empty is theory in the presence of fact!”What is Darwin's theory of evolution in simple words? ›
This means that if an environment changes, the traits that enhance survival in that environment will also gradually change, or evolve. Natural selection was such a powerful idea in explaining the evolution of life that it became established as a scientific theory.How did Darwin prove evolution? ›
Darwin used multiple lines of evidence to support his theory of evolution by natural selection -- fossil evidence, biogeographical evidence, and anatomical evidence.Which two statements best summarize Darwin's theory? ›
The two general ideas of Darwin's Theory are evolution and natural selection.
Final answer: The two key concepts of the Darwinian theory of evolution is branching descent and natural selection.How did Charles Darwin use the theory of natural selection? ›
A visit to the Galapagos Islands in 1835 helped Darwin formulate his ideas on natural selection. He found several species of finch adapted to different environmental niches. The finches also differed in beak shape, food source, and how food was captured.How did Darwin's theory of evolution affect society? ›
Darwin observed that the finches of different islands had different shaped beaks to accommodate for the food source in their habitat. By being able to apply this to other animals, it changed the way that people thought about life on earth and opened new doors for science in the future.What was Charles Darwin's conclusion? ›
Darwin concluded that species change through natural selection, or - to use Wallace's phrase - through "the survival of the fittest" in a given environment.What did people think of Charles Darwin's book? ›
Religious views were mixed, with the Church of England's scientific establishment reacting against the book, while liberal Anglicans strongly supported Darwin's natural selection as an instrument of God's design.What is that Darwin could not answer? ›
Darwin had no knowledge of genetics and principles of inheritance. Hence, he could not explain the origin of variations in animals and plants.What are two unanswered questions about evolution? ›
- Why do some species survive while others go extinct?
- Does evolution proceed toward increasing complexity?
- If fish became amphibians through the process of evolution, then why do fish still exist?
- Could apes ever evolve into some other humanlike creature?
- Are humans influencing the process of evolution?
- the theory challenged the idea that God made all animals and plants that live on Earth (creationism)
- there was insufficient evidence when the theory was published to convince many scientists.
- the mechanism of inheritance and variation was not known until 50 years after the theory was published.
Evolution is both a fact and a theory. Evolution is widely observable in laboratory and natural populations as they change over time. The fact that we need annual flu vaccines is one example of observable evolution.How do we know evolution is true? ›
The Fossil Record
This evidence attests to the fact that there has been a tremendous variety of living things. Some extinct species had traits that were transitional between major groups of organisms. Their existence confirms that species are not fixed but can evolve into other species over time.
Charles Darwin not only did not coin the phrase “survival of the fittest” (the phrase was invented by Herbert Spencer), but he argued against it.What is Darwin's law? ›
Darwin's law of natural selection implies that a population in equilibrium with its environment under natural selection will have a phenotype which maximizes the fitness locally.What are Charles Darwin's laws? ›
Charles Darwin's theory of evolution had three main components: that variation occurred randomly among members of a species; that an individual's traits could be inherited by its progeny; and that the struggle for existence would allow only those with favorable traits to survive.What are the 5 theories of evolution? ›
In fact, we may distinguish five theories that Darwin combined: evolution as such, common descent, gradualism, multiplication of species, and natural selection.What is an example of Darwin's theory of evolution? ›
Consider the giraffe, for example. A Darwinian theory of evolution posits that it was through random variation that some giraffes had longer necks than others. Thanks to their long necks, they were able to reach leaves high up in the trees in their environment.What are the laws of evolution? ›
These are the basic tenets of evolution by natural selection as defined by Darwin: More individuals are produced each generation than can survive. Phenotypic variation exists among individuals and the variation is heritable. Those individuals with heritable traits better suited to the environment will survive.What are the three types of natural selection? ›
Natural selection on polygenic traits can affect the distributions of phenotypes in three ways: directional selection, stabilizing selection, or disruptive selection.What did Darwin say to Gumball? ›
In "The Safety", Gumball steps on Darwin's foot and Darwin yells "OH YOU-", after that a picture of a mother, then a farmer shown bucking hay, a picture of a donkey, then a picture of a clown is shown.What did Darwin say about life? ›
Darwin believed all the life on Earth developed gradually over millions of years from a few common ancestors. The Darwin mission will survey 1000 of the closest stars, looking for small, rocky planets which are the most likely places for life to develop — at least as we know it.What is the quote from the autobiography of Charles Darwin? ›
“I have steadily endeavoured to keep my mind free, so as to give up any hypothesis, however much beloved (and I cannot resist forming one on every subject), as soon as facts are shown to be opposed to it.”
The name of the famous book written by Charles Darwin is “The Origin of Species”Did Darwin kiss Gumball? ›
Darwin is jealous of Penny for taking all of Gumball's attention and does everything he can to get between the two of them so that he can have Gumball all to himself: Darwin kisses Gumball on the cheek, imagines a time with him very reminiscent of a date, urges him to embrace him and attempts a Spaghetti Kiss on him, ...What was the secret Darwin didn't tell Gumball? ›
Gumball locks himself and Darwin in the boys' bathroom to get the secret out of him. Darwin says that the secret was the sandwich Gumball made for him was not great, it was only good. Shocked and enraged, Gumball throws a fit at Darwin, since he expected the secret to be something less trivial.What were Darwin's dying words? ›
According to his children, Darwin—a doting family man at a time when active fathers were rare—spoke these words to his wife Emma shortly before dying: “I am not the least afraid of death. Remember what a good wife you have been to me.What did Darwin say about the soul? ›
Charles Darwin wrote the book "The Origin of Species" which also displays the theological views. He was a religious person and he believed that souls existed as there is the existence of God who possesses all the supreme powers and he is only the lawgiver.What did Darwin say humans evolved from? ›
Singh's statement, Darwin did not say that humans directly evolved from apes. He merely pointed out the similarities between birds, fishes, mammals and reptiles and suggested that all life is related. This, in turn, means that all complex life forms evolved from simpler ones through various genetic mutations.What is the quote of social Darwinism? ›
With savages, the weak in body or mind are soon eliminated; and those that survive commonly exhibit a vigorous state of health.Why is Charles Darwin's book important? ›
Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species has been called the most important book ever written. Introducing the theory of evolution by natural selection, Darwin's book fundamentally altered how scientists look at the natural world, and continues to frame biological research today.How many books did Darwin write on evolution? ›
Since the Creating the Origin and Darwin's Evidence units of the Edited Manuscripts lead to Darwin's fifteen books, the first edition and significant subsequent editions are given here.